Foods to Lower Cholesterol 降低膽固醇的食物
by Owain Mckimm


                                     全民英檢102年(2013)施測日程表


What is the best way to lower your cholesterol level?
什麼是來降低膽固醇含量的最佳方式?



  


  While foods like eggs and shellfish contain cholesterol, cutting them from your diet is not the best thing for lowering your cholesterol level. Foods that really affect your cholesterol level are those that affect the body's _(1)_ of lipoproteins. Cholesterol is actually _(2)_ for building cells, and lipoproteins are small protein packages which carry the cholesterol produced naturally in your liver through the body via the blood stream.


  The two types of lipoproteins that seriously affect cholesterol levels are low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). LDLs carry the necessary cholesterol to the body's cells. HDLs carry _(3)_ cholesterol back to the liver to be recycled or removed. Problems occur when LDLs _(4)_ artery walls and accumulate there. Accumulated cholesterol from LDLs forms thick plaque along the artery walls, which can _(5)_ the blood flow and cause heart attacks. A high LDL count usually _(6)_ potential heart disease. Adversely, a high HDL count means your system is _(7)_ likely to be clogged up by cholesterol .


  To prevent cholesterol from _(8)_, people should eat foods that lower LDLs and those that increase HDLs. Foods which _(9)_ lots of saturated fat tend to increase the level of harmful LDLs, so it's best to stay away from them. These are things like red meat, cakes, dairy products, and fried foods. Citrus fruits, soy products, fish, nuts, beans, and avocados, on the other hand, lower the body's production of LDLs and give your HDL level a _(10)_. Add these to your diet to help keep your arteries clean and cholesterol-free.
(A) limit (B) boost (C) essential (D) contain (E) unnecessary
(F) less (G) production (H) building up (I) penetrate (J) points to




原來如此
  1. Foods that really affect your cholesterol level are those that affect the body's production of lipoproteins.理由:
    a. 空格前有所有格 the body's(身體的),故得知空格內應置名詞,使 the body's _______ 作為 affect 的受詞。選項中有 (A) limit(限制)、(B) boost(推動;提升)及 (G) production(產量;生產)均為名詞。
    b. 將這些選項填入空格後,僅 (G) 項合乎語意,故為正選。
  2. Cholesterol is actually essential for building cells, and lipoproteins are small protein packages which carry the cholesterol produced naturally in your liver through the body via the blood stream.理由:
    a. 空格前有 be 動詞 is,actually(實際上)用來修飾 is,之後必須接名詞或形容詞,但填入兩個名詞 (A) limit(限制)及 (B) boost(推動;提升)後,語意不合且皆無法與介詞 for 並用,故皆不可選。
    b. 根據上述,故知此空格應接形容詞,選項中僅 (C) essential(不可或缺的)、(E) unnecessary(不必要的)和 (F) less(較少的)為形容詞,(E)、(F) 選項填入後語意不符,僅 (C) 選項填入後,可形成以下固定用法:
    be essential for...  對……是不可或缺的
    Water is essential for the survival of all living creatures.
    水分對所有生物的生存都是不可或缺的。
    c. 根據上述,(C) 項應為正選。
  3. HDLs carry unnecessary cholesterol back to the liver to be recycled or removed.理由:
    a. 空格前有及物動詞 carry(運送),空格後有名詞 cholesterol(膽固醇),得知空格內須置形容詞以修飾該名詞。
    b. 選項中僅剩 (E) unnecessary(不必要的)和 (F) less(較少的)為形容詞,置入後僅 (E) 符合語意,故為正選。
    c. unnecessary a. 不必要的
    My attitude towards violence is that it's completely unnecessary.
    我對暴力的態度是,那絕對是不必要的。
  4. Problems occur when LDLs penetrate artery walls and accumulate there.理由:
    a. 空格前有 when 所引導的副詞子句,LDLs (低密度脂蛋白)作為主詞,空格後又有名詞詞組 artery walls(動脈壁),得知空格內應置及物動詞,使 artery walls 可作其受詞。
    b. 選項中,可作及物動詞的有 (D) contain(包含)及(I) penetrate(滲透),惟根據語意,僅 (I) 項為正選。
    c. penetrate vt. 穿過,滲入
    The needle couldn't penetrate the elephant's tough skin.
    針穿不過大象堅韌的皮膚。
  5. Accumulated cholesterol from LDLs forms thick plaque along the artery walls, which can limit the blood flow and cause heart attacks.理由:
    a. 由於空格位於助動詞 can 之後,空格內應置原形動詞。選項中, (A) limit(限制)、(B) boost(促進;提升)、(D) contain(包含)均為原形動詞,惟按語意,空格內僅能填入 (A) limit the blood flow(限制其血液流量),故 (A) 項應為正選。
    b. limit vt. 限制
    limit A to B  將 A 限制在 B 內
    Bill tried to limit his spending to NT$5,000 a month.
    比爾努力將每月開銷限制在台幣 5 千元以內。
  6. A high LDL count usually points to potential heart disease.理由:
    a. 空格前有頻率副詞 usually,可知空格內應置動詞,選項中有 (B) boost(促進;提升)、(D) contain(包含)以及 (J) points to(指向;意味著)可供選擇。唯本句主詞 A high LDL count (低密度脂蛋白總數高)是單數,僅 (J) points to(指向;意味著)合乎用法及語意,故為正選。
    b. point to...  指向……;指出……
    John is pointing to a small boat on the beach, saying, "It's mine."
    約翰指著那艘在海灘上的小船說:『那是我的。』
    The survey results point to a need for kids' programs.
    該調查報告結果指出兒童節目的需求。
  7. Adversely, a high HDL count means your system is less likely to be clogged up by cholesterol.理由:
    a. 空格前有 be 動詞 is,空格後有形容詞 likely(可能的),故得知空格內應置副詞以修飾形容詞,選項中僅 (F) less 可作副詞,表『更少地』,置入空格後合乎語意及用法,故 (F) 項應為正選。
    b. be less likely to V  不太可能……
    Marcus is less likely to take public transportation now that he has a car.
    馬克思不太可能搭乘大眾運輸工具,因為他有車。
  8. To prevent cholesterol from building up, people should eat foods that lower LDLs and those that increase HDLs.理由:
    a. 空格前有介詞 from,得知空格內應置動名詞或是名詞作 from 的受詞。
    b. prevent A from B  避免 A 受 B 所害
    Mr. Davis remained neutral on the issue to prevent himself from getting into trouble.
    戴維斯先生在該議題上保持中立,以免惹上麻煩。
    c. 選項中僅 (H) building up(累積)為動名詞,故為正選。
    d. build up  累積
    I know you are mad at Gary, but you
    shouldn't let your anger build up.
    我知道你很氣蓋瑞,但總不能一直氣下去。
  9. Foods which contain lots of saturated fat tend to increase the level of harmful LDLs, so it's best to stay away from them.理由:
    a. 空格前有關係代名詞 which 作主詞,引導形容詞子句以修飾主詞 Foods(食物),又由於主詞 Foods 為複數,因此空格內應置複數動詞。選項中仍有 (B) boost(提升)及 (D) contain(包含)為複數動詞,按語意,可知 (D) 應為正選。
    b. contain vt. 包含
    This drink doesn't contain any artificial flavors.
    這種飲料不含任何人工香料。
  10. Citrus fruits, soy products, fish, nuts, beans, and avocados, on the other hand, lower the body's production of LDLs and give your HDL level a boost.理由:
    a. 由於空格前有不定冠詞 a,得知空格內應置名詞。選項中僅剩下 (B) boost(推動;提升),並形成下列固定用法:
    give sth/sb a boost
    將某人∕某物大大提升
    Winning the tournament gave the tennis player a boost in his overall ranking.
    贏得此次錦標賽讓該網球選手的總排名大大地向上提升。
    b. 根據上述,(B) 項應為正選。
精解字詞片語
  1. affect vt. 影響
    = influence
    The divorce affected every aspect of Tony's life.
    離婚影響了東尼生活的每個層面。
  2. remove vt. 移開;去除
    remove A from B  將 A 從 B 上移開∕去除
    Reference books may not be removed from the library.
    參考用書不可以借出圖書館外。
  3. accumulate vt. 累積
    Jason has accumulated a lot of souvenirs over the years.
    傑森多年來累積了大量的紀念品。
  4. potential a. 可能的 & n. 潛能
    Lily sees Jack as a brother, not a potential boyfriend.
    莉莉視傑克為哥哥,而不是男友候選人。
    Mrs. Jones believes her son has the potential to be a great musician.
    瓊絲太太相信她兒子有成為優秀音樂家的潛力。
  5. clog up...  阻塞……
    The shower drain is clogged up with hair.
    淋浴間的排水孔被頭髮塞住了。
  6. stay away from...  遠離……
    = keep away from...
    The mother always tells her children to stay away from strangers.
    那位媽媽總是告訴她的孩子要遠離陌生人。
  7. on the other hand,...  另一方面,……
    On one hand, I like living in the country. On the other hand, it's a little inconvenient.
    一方面,我喜歡住在鄉下。但另一方面,住在那裡有些不方便。


    單字小舖
    1. cholesterol n. 膽固醇
    2. shellfish n. 貝類
    3. diet n. 飲食
    4. lower vt. & vi. 降低
    5. cholesterol level  膽固醇含量
    6. lipoprotein n. 脂蛋白
    7. liver n. 肝
    8. the blood stream  血流
    9. low-density a. 低密度的
      high-density a. 高密度的
    10. artery n. 動脈
    11. plaque n. 血小板
    12. count n. 總數;數目
    13. adversely adv. 相反地
    14. the saturated fat  飽和脂肪
    15. the dairy product  牛奶製品
    16. citrus fruit  柑橘類水果
    17. avocado n. 酪梨


中文翻譯

  雖然蛋及貝類這些食物含有膽固醇,但從你的飲食中剔除這些東西並不是降低你身上膽固醇含量最好的方式。真正會影響體內膽固醇含量的食物,就是那些會影響體內脂蛋白生成的食物。膽固醇事實上是建構細胞不可或缺的,而脂蛋白就是細小蛋白質的堆積,會帶著人體肝臟自然生產的膽固醇,透過血流遍及全身。


  有兩種脂蛋白對膽固醇含量影響甚鉅,一種是低密度脂蛋白(LDLs),另一種則是高密度脂蛋白(HDLs)。低密度脂蛋白輸送所需的膽固醇至體內的細胞。高密度脂蛋白則帶著不必要的膽固醇回到肝臟循環再造或是將之清除掉。當低密度脂蛋白滲入動脈壁且累積在那裡時,問題就產生了。由低密度脂蛋白所累積的膽固醇沿著動脈壁形成厚厚的血小板塊,這樣可能侷限血流量而導致心臟病發作。低密度脂蛋白總數高的話,通常意味著潛在的心臟疾病。相反地,高密度脂蛋白總數高則表示你的循環系統不太可能會被膽固醇所堵塞。


  為了避免膽固醇的累積,人們應該要吃那些會減少低密度脂蛋白的食物還有那些能提升高密度脂蛋白的食物。含有大量飽和脂肪的食物往往會增加有害的低密度脂蛋白含量,所以最好是離它們遠一點。這些食物像是紅肉、蛋糕、牛奶製品以及油炸食物等。而另一方面,柑橘類水果、豆製品、魚、堅果、豆子及酪梨則會降低體內低密度脂蛋白的生成,並且提升高密度脂蛋白的含量。將這些食物加到你的日常飲食中能幫助保持動脈清潔而且不含膽固醇。


答案:1. G 2. C 3. E 4. I 5. A 6. J 7. F 8. H 9. D 10. B


引用自:長春藤英語 http://www.ivy.com.tw/


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